Ascarya: Journal of Islamic Science, Culture, and Social Studies 2021-10-13T13:05:17+00:00 Ascarya: Journal of Islamic Science, Culture and Social Studies Open Journal Systems <p>Ascarya: Journal of Islamic Science, Culture and Social Studies <a href="">(E-ISSN 2775-4243)</a> and (<a href="">P-ISSN 2798-5083</a>) is a journal that accommodates the latest research results in Islamic, social and cultural studies in a multidisciplinary manner. The editorial team invites researchers to submit their best articles that have never been published in other media or journals. Ascarya Journal is published twice a year (January-July)</p> <p style="background-color: #f8efae; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #000000;"> <strong>Judul Jurnal : </strong> Ascarya: Journal of Islamic Science, Culture, and Social Studies <strong><br /></strong></span><span style="color: #000000;"> <strong>Jadwal Publikasi;</strong>: Januari &amp; July</span> <span style="color: #000000;"><strong><br />Bahasa;</strong>: English, Indonesia</span><span style="color: #000000;"><br /><strong>Article Processing Charge</strong>: 350.000 IDR <br /><strong>Publisher:</strong> Perkumpulan Alumni dan Santri Mahyajatul Qurro' (<strong><a href="">SK KEMENKUMHAM</a></strong>)<br /></span><span style="color: #000000;"> <strong>ISSN:</strong> <a href="">2775-4243 </a>(online), <a href="">2798-5083 </a>(print)<br /><strong>Kontak:</strong> <a href=""></a></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><br /></span></p> <section id="what-we-do"> <div class="container-fluid"> <h2 class="section-title mb-2 h1">Ascarya Journal of Islamic Science, Culture &amp; Social Studies</h2> <div class="row mt-5"> <div class="col"> <div class="card"> <div class="card-block block-1"> <h3 class="card-title">Open Access</h3> <p class="card-text">All articles are freely available online immediately to anyone, allowing authors to share their research and maximize its impact.</p> <a class="read-more" title="Read more" href="">Read more<em class="fa fa-angle-double-right ml-2"><!-- icon --></em></a></div> </div> </div> <div class="col"> <div class="card"> <div class="card-block block-2"> <h3 class="card-title">Call for Papers</h3> <p class="card-text">Ascarya Journal of Islamic Science, Culture &amp; Social Studies is calling for papers for Vol. 1, No. 2, 2021 (July issue).</p> <a class="read-more" title="Read more" href="">Read more<em class="fa fa-angle-double-right ml-2"><!-- icon --></em></a></div> </div> </div> <div class="w-100"> </div> <div class="col"> <div class="card"> <div class="card-block block-3"> <h3 class="card-title">Indexing and Abstracting</h3> <p class="card-text">The journal is indexed and abstracted in Moraref, Google Scholar, Neliti, Onesearch.</p> <a class="read-more" title="Read more" href="">Read more<em class="fa fa-angle-double-right ml-2"><!-- icon --></em></a></div> </div> </div> <div class="col"> <div class="card"> <div class="card-block block-4"> <h3 class="card-title">Article Processing Charges</h3> <p class="card-text">Authors are required to pay a fair manuscript handling fee for the processing of their articles in the journal.</p> <a class="read-more" title="Read more" href="">Read more</a></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> Paradigma Kepemimpinan Transformatif Menuju Madrasah Unggulan 2021-04-30T11:12:28+00:00 Indah Nurrohmah Fitri Wulandari <p>The concept of leadership is still developing from time to time. Leadership theory also continues to evolve to find the most effective form of leadership in organizational management. In the 1980s, transformative leadership was born and is often referred to as an effective leadership model. In its preparation, this leadership concept uses a leader-follower perspective. Transformative leadership is claimed to be the most effective leadership pattern, which can achieve the main goals. Using a descriptive qualitative approach with library research methods, and analyzed using the theory of "paradigm" by Thomas Kuhn. This research is basically to reveal: 1. What is the transformative leadership paradigm? 2. How is the application of transformative leadership in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah? This study aimed to analyze the transformative leadership paradigm using the theory of Thomas Kuhn and initiating the application of transformative leadership in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and resulting in the following conclusions: 1. Transformative leadership paradigm in terms of exemplar aspects, subject matter, theory, and method. 2. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, which uses a transformative leadership management paradigm, always develops idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration. Transformative leadership is very relevant to be applied in Madrasah Ibtidaiyah to create Effective and Excellent Madrasahs.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Indah Nurrohmah, Fitri Wulandari Implementasi Metode Visual-Auditory-Kinestetik dalam Tari SigehPenguten sebagai Tarian Tradisi Lampung di UPTD SMPN 3 Metro 2021-05-26T01:54:19+00:00 Apriyani Apriyani <p><em>The purpose of learning the Sigeh Pengunten Dance with the VAK (Visual) learning method is to determine the extent to which students are able to demonstrate the Sigeh Penguten Dance according to what is taught by the teacher. The research method used is descriptive qualitative with a population of UPTD SMPN 3 Metro students and a sample size of 5 students.</em></p> <p><em>The results of this study are the learning process using the visual method, auditory kinesthetic in practice has increased in the first meeting to the eighth meeting. This can be seen from 3 aspects of VAK, namely visual and auditory in the form of students listening to teacher instructions and paying attention and seeing the teacher demonstrating the Sigeh penguten dance, namely the Lapah tebeng movement, Seluang going home, jong simpuh, sitting down, jong silo Ratu and Sembah, flashback, biting. , samber floated. Guuh gakhang, ngiyau bias, makuraccang, kenui floating and tipping at high levels, Sabung Hovering, reject slashing and splitting hui, able to bias, end to moderate level and end to low level, Lipetto and Jong Simpuh Sembah. Regarding the kinesthetic aspect of students dancing the Sigeh Penguten dance With the various movements mentioned above, starting from the first meeting to the seventh meeting, the eight students took practical tests to take scores and evaluations. The value obtained from the practical test carried out was an increase in understanding which could be seen in the increase in the value obtained, although it decreased slightly at the third meeting. The results of the VAk learning test (Visual, auditory., Kinesthetic) as a whole show the data that students have been able to demonstrate the Sigeh Penguten dance with an average score of Good.</em></p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Apriyani Peran Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi 2021-03-20T03:39:44+00:00 Luthfi Fauziyyah Nur’aiini Bambang Samsul Arifin <p><em>In general, performance in a group is carried out by face-to-face meetings, but for now, face-to-face meetings are not only means of communication by workgroups or organizations. In the last 20 years, information and communication technology (ICT) has shown a new communication platform, especially in working groups. So that emerging research that discusses workgroups that focus on new ways to communicate in groups. However, there are no studies to date that express communication via computers in groups over time. The researcher is interested in discussing it with quantitative research methods; data are taken from 44 participants, 22 groups working in face-to-face conditions, and 22 groups working in Zoom Meeting conditions. Participants are 11th-grade students of Madrasah Aliyah Banjaran who are enrolled in extra-curricular entrepreneurship. The mean age was 17 years old, 32 students were male (18%), and 144 were female (82%). The composition of each group has the same proportion. The results showed that virtual communication could improve group performance, and it is necessary to develop group potential in virtual teams.</em></p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Luthfi Fauziyyah Nur’aiini, Bambang Samsul Arifin Konflik Batin Tokoh Utama Dalam Drama Romeo dan Juliet Karya William Shakpeare dan Drama Atas Nama Cinta Karya Agus R. Sarjono 2021-07-07T08:16:28+00:00 Fitria Amalia Ramadhan Ramadhan <p>This study aims to analyze two literary works and to present the results of the analyzes that the author has reviewed as a consideration or reference for comparative literary studies with the title "The inner conflict of the main character in the drama Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and Atas Nama Cinta by Agus R. Sardjono. "Shows the inner conflict of the story of Romeo and Juliet about love wrapped in a grudge between the two families, which causes the murder and suicide of the main character until the family finally reconciles. As well as the comparison with In the Name of Love, which is a love drama wrapped in comedy that has a deep meaning about love and power and is closely related to the drama Romeo and Juliet because they have similar inner conflicts.<br />This study uses a Literary Psychology approach with Sigmund Freud's theory. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. The sources of this research are two drama scripts, namely Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and Atas Nama Cinta by Agus R. Sardjono. From the analysis of the two drama scripts, it can be rejected. The conflict in the two drama scripts Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare and Atas Nama Cinta by Agus R. Sarjono experienced an inner conflict with the main character. According to Sigmund Freud's theory, there is an ego in the event of this request. Ego is a psychological responsibility and arises because of the organism's need for good relations (reality).</p> 2021-07-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fitria Amalia Fitria, Ramadhan Pengaturan Pendayagunaan Sumber Daya Air dalam Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja dan Korelasinya dengan Pasal 33 UUD 1945 2021-06-21T00:44:11+00:00 Dimas Putra Pradhyksa <p>Currently, the regulation regarding Water Resources is regulated in Law Number 17 of 2019 concerning Water Resources (“SDA Law”), and several provisions have been amended by Law Number 11 of 2021 concerning Job Creation (“Job Creation Law”). The existence of water resources, which is the constitutional right of every Indonesian citizen, is fundamental. Water should be the right of every layer of Indonesian citizens because the 1945 Constitution guarantees constitutional rights. Therefore, water must be controlled by the State and used as much as possible for the prosperity of the people. Based on Article 33 paragraph (2) and paragraph (3), Utilization of Water Resources can contextualize the paradigm of control over water resources between the Natural Resources Law, the Job Creation Law and its derivative regulations must prioritize the management of water resources with a state responsibility approach (State control) that prioritizes the interests of the State. Social needs (living needs of the people) and community involvement in planning for exploitation, protection, and financing of the benefits of irrigation have not yet detailed regulations regarding the use of water for the benefit of other industries. </p> 2021-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dimas Putra Pradhyksa Karakteristik Penafsiran Alquran dan Tafsirnya Karya Tim Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia 2021-07-07T15:22:29+00:00 Muhammad Esa Prasastia Amnesti <p>This article will explore the characteristics of the Koran of the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia, both in terms of historical formulation and interpretation models. This research is also motivated by the claims of several scholars who state that the interpretation or translation of the Koran from the Ministry of Religion tends to be misunderstood by ordinary people. Does this article aim to review several things related to the history of the formulation of the Koran by the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia? What are the patterns and characteristics of the interpretation applied to the Koran of the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia? The results showed that the source of the interpretation of the Koran from the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia used naqli and aqli reasoning with the tahili (detailed) interpretation method and the Muqarin technique. The tendency of his interpretation emphasizes more on literary and social issues and reflects the tendency of interpretation of adab al-ijtima'i and fiqh. This interpretation product is not suitable for ordinary people because the cost is too expensive and tends to expose the opinions of scholars who require analysis.</p> 2021-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Esa Prasastia Amnesti Perang Ekuador dan Peru Tahun 1995 2021-08-05T17:42:09+00:00 Ahmad Daniel Kusumah Anshary <p><em>This study tries to explain the reasons why Peru and Ecuador went to war with each other in 1995, even though both are democracies. The research was conducted concerning Immanuel Kant's Democratic Peace Theory by examining norms and institutions as essential factors in developing his theory. This study uses qualitative research with literature review and interview methods. The study will focus on the conditions of norms and institutions in Peru and Ecuador in 1995, the year the two countries decided to go to war with each other. Based on the research results, it is known that democratic norms and institutions owned by Ecuador and Peru have not been able to create peace as has been assumed by Immanuel Kant in the Democratic Peace Theory. Although Ecuador has democratic institutions that can reduce the authority of its leaders in decision-making, the domestic democratic norms established in the 1830 Constitutional Law cannot make the Ecuadorian people's support refer to peace in overcoming the Cenepa border conflict. On the contrary, in Peru, democratic norms that prefer to negotiate and make peace are not followed by the effectiveness of the role of democratic institutions that cannot limit President Fujimori's authority, who chooses to carry out attacks in border areas which then triggers a war.</em></p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmad Daniel Kusumah Anshary Pembinaan dan Pengawasan Penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan Daerah Otonomi Khusus di Papua 2021-07-11T03:08:56+00:00 Barik Muhammad Kurniawan Ardy <p>This study aims to analyze the performance of the Directorate of Regional Arrangement, Special Autonomy, and the Regional Autonomy Advisory Council in fostering and supervising the implementation of special autonomy in Papua, analyzing the supporting factors and obstacles to the performance of the guidance and supervision carried out by the directorate as well as analyzing the strategy of guidance and supervision in the administration of local government. Special autonomy in Papua. Descriptive qualitative research design through an inductive approach. Data obtained from observation, documentation, and interviews with key informants were then analyzed using triangulation to analyze supporting and inhibiting factors and strategies, used SWOT Matrix and Litmus Test. Based on the results of data analysis, it is concluded that; (1) the directorate's performance in fostering and supervising the administration of the particular autonomous regional government in Papua has not been optimal; (2) performance supporting factors. Namely, organizational legality, human resources, leadership commitment, inter-institutional linkages, national priorities and access to coordination communication as well as performance inhibiting factors, namely, limiting regulations, limited funding, differences in employee orientation, national disintegration, 'span' of control which is far away, and the commitment between stakeholders is not optimal and; (3) the strategy resulting from this research is the "K5" strategy, namely strengthening in terms of Institutional, Communication, Coordination, HR Quality, and IT Quality. From this conclusion, the researcher provides suggestions, namely restructuring the directorate, preparing guidance and supervision instruments in the implementation of Papua's special autonomy, expanding cooperation networks or partnerships with stakeholders, developing digital-based information systems, facilitating employees to attend training or workshops, and a commitment to realizing the "K5" strategy.</p> 2021-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Barik Muhammad Kurniawan Ardy Efektivitas Pelayanan Pengaduan Masyarakat Melalui Doorstop di Kecamatan Kebayoran Baru Kota Administrasi Jakarta Selatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta 2021-07-12T14:51:11+00:00 Kasmawati Kasmawati <p>The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of public complaints services through Doorstops, to find out the supporting and inhibiting factors for the point of public protests services through Doorstops, and efforts to overcome barriers to the effectiveness of Public Complaints Services through Doorstops in Kebayoran Baru District, South Jakarta Administration, DKI Jakarta Province. The method used in this study is a qualitative method with a descriptive approach. The data needed in this study include primary data and secondary data. This research used data collection techniques through interviews, documentation and observation. Informants were determined using purposive sampling and incidental sampling techniques. According to Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly (1995), the theory used is the basis for developing a framework of thinking and research instruments. It appears that there are several problems, including the number of complaints received is still very small and even decreased from 2017-2019, the amount of budget used is not proportional to the number of services provided, the service process is still prolonged, there are still some repeated complaints, human resources still lacking, the facilities and infrastructure used are still minimal, and socialization has not been maximized so that it has an impact on decreasing public complaint services. Suggestions to increase productivity and quality of general complaint services, re-evaluate the budget used, increase Human Resources, fulfil infrastructure, and socialize, as well as optimize online-based public complaint services.</p> 2021-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kasmawati Kasmawati Efektivitas Pengadaan Barang dan Jasa Melalui E-Catalogue di Kecamatan Kebayoran Lama Kota Administrasi Jakarta Selatan Provinsi DKI Jakarta 2021-07-11T03:55:01+00:00 Deby Ariesta <p>This study aims to determine the effectiveness of E-Catalog procurement of goods and services in Kebayoran Lama District, South Jakarta Administration City, DKI Jakarta Province. This study uses a descriptive method with a qualitative approach. Data collection techniques were carried out through in-depth interview studies, observation, and documentation, during data collection techniques, data reduction, data display, and verification. This study indicates that the effectiveness of the procurement of goods and services of E-Catalogue has shown success, although it has not run optimally in its application, where efficiency and effectiveness are obtained in the indicators. From the aspect of time, the process of procuring goods and services for E-Catalogue is faster because it takes 1 week at most 3 weeks, conventionally it takes more than 4 weeks. in improving the performance of the number of procurement through E-Catalogue, the procurement process has not yet supported the SOP (Standard Operating System) to carry out an overall transformation, especially in relation to constraints in the electronic procurement system, having certification of procurement of goods and services in operation Computers need the assistance of other human resources to assist their implementation, due to the lack of ability to operate computers and the program and the participation of agencies in conducting the process of procuring goods and services electronically, they are not yet aware of the importance of carrying out the procurement process goods and services that are effective and efficient, the lesson that can be learned from this research is a strong commitment from the leadership to the staff as executor in the field.</p> 2021-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Deby Ariesta Pengaruh Kesadaran Wajib Pajak, Pengetahuan Peraturan Pajak, dan Penyuluhan Perpajakan terhadap Kepatuhan Pembayaran Pajak Transaksi E-Commerce di Surabaya 2021-09-06T03:31:30+00:00 Aloisius Hama <p>Testing the intended effect for the taxpayer, knowledge of tax regulations, and tax counseling with transaction tax payment compliance for e-commerce actors is the purpose of this research. The research population involves E-commerce actors in the fashion sector who operate on Instagram social media accounts and are located in Surabaya. Multiple Linear Regression is the provision chosen in the data analysis model of this study because this study was designed to examine the influence of the independent variable with the dependent variable. The study results indicate that the growing awareness of taxpayers has a negative and insignificant effect on compliance with paying taxes for e-commerce actors. Knowledge of tax regulations partially found a significant positive effect on tax compliance for e-commerce actors. Then, other results show that partial tax counseling has a positive effect that is not considered significant on tax compliance for e-commerce players.</p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aloisius Hama Makro Ekonomi dan Pengentasan Kemiskinan di Indonesia 2021-09-06T07:52:33+00:00 Abi Fadillah <p>Poverty is still a problem in Indonesia's economy. From the colonial period to 75 years of independence, around 27.55 million people still live below the poverty line. This paper tries to examine the impact of Indonesia's macroeconomic variables as proxied by Economic Growth (GDPG), Inward FDI (FDI), Unemployment (UNM), Inflation (IN), Exports (EXP), Imports (IMP) on Indonesia's absolute poverty (POVY) with using annual data from 1979-2020. This study emphasizes economic growth as the primary variable. At the same time, other independent variables are used as control variables. The method in this study uses Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and applies bounds testing approach to measuring the long-term relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The cointegration limit test shows that there is long-term cointegration between macroeconomic impacts on poverty in Indonesia. The short-term and long-term ARDL models show that all independent variables have a significant relationship with poverty in Indonesia.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abi Fadillah Analisis Sistem Pengendalian Internal dalam Optimalisasi Sistem Pembelian pada PT. Mulia Safety Service Surabaya 2021-09-06T03:28:10+00:00 Mersiana Varia Juita <p><em>This study aims to describe the application of the purchasing accounting system in the company and evaluate the internal control system in the company's purchasing accounting system. This research utilizes qualitative methods. The scope of research conducted in this study is an evaluation of internal control in the purchasing system at PT. Mulia Safety Service, which is located at Jl. Eastern Silver No. 232, Surabaya. Total respondents were determined using the snowball sampling technique—respondents who were selected to be key informants from the information manager of PT. Mulia Safety Service, then continued to other respondents based on recommendations from key respondents with assumptions related to the research conducted. Meanwhile, data analysis was carried out by collecting data, reducing data, presenting data, and analyzing data. The results showed that the internal control system for the purchasing accounting system at PT. Mulia Safety Service Surabaya is still not comprehensive. This is due to the dual function of the purchasing department (purchase function and receiving function) and the lack of document distribution (goods receipt form), which should also be accepted by the accounting department. Therefore, some improvements are needed. First, by creating a separate receiving section as a reception function or by giving this authority to the inventory section, and secondly, the receiving function also creates documents (goods receipt forms) so that not only the purchasing and inventory departments receive them but also the accounting department. This improvement is expected to optimize the purchasing accounting system at PT. Mulia Safety Service Surabaya.</em></p> 2021-09-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mersiana Varia Juita Kebijakan Dana Kampung dan Budaya Organisasi Dalam Mendukung Kinerja Aparatur Kampung 2021-07-12T10:54:46+00:00 Muhammad Aryo Widiyoko <p><em>This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of implementing village fund policies and organizational culture on the performance of village officials. This research is explanatory and associative. The scope variables in this study consist of the implementation of village policies and organizational culture as independent variables and the village apparatus's performance as the dependent. The population in this study were all village officials in Sorong Regency, as many as 2,486 people. The sampling technique used is the Slovin sampling formulation using 100 respondents. The data collection method used a questionnaire with a Likert scale. The analysis technique used is multiple linear regression. The research results in this study are: (1) the implementation of the village fund policy partially has a significant effect on the performance of the village apparatus, (2) the organizational culture partially has a significant effect on the performance of the village apparatus. Village apparatus, (3) implementation of village fund policy Simultaneous organizational and village culture have a significant effect on the performance of village officials.</em></p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Aryo Widiyoko Optimalisasi Peran Pendamping Desa Dalam Pembangunan dan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa 2021-08-30T18:56:05+00:00 Agustiar Rivaldi <p>The presence of Village Facilitators is a demand for Law Number 6 of 2014 concerning Villages and Permendes No. 3 of 2015 concerning Village Assistance. Five years of the village fund and village assistance program have been running, but there are still problems in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess the research to determine the role of village facilitators in the development and empowerment of rural communities. This research is a qualitative study with a field approach. This research is located in villages in Klapanunggal District, Bogor Regency. The author uses data collection techniques in the form of interviews, documentation, and observation. The study results concluded that village facilitators were able to improve the accountability and transparency aspects of village government. Supervision and community participation as the subject and object of development and empowerment over the last five years, in general, have shown their existence towards a change in a healthy and independent village government system. However, the problem of not optimal assistance still occurs both at the central and regional government levels and at the village level.</p> 2021-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Agustiar Rivaldi Integrasi Hukum Islam Di Kerajaan Demak Abad XVI M 2021-10-13T13:05:17+00:00 M Irfan Riyadi Khairil Umami <p><strong>:</strong> The transfer of government from Majapahit to Demak at the end of the 15th century, as well as a transition from the Hindu era to the Islamic era, also gave birth to social, political, cultural, and legal transformations. The pattern of the penetration of Islam into peaceful Javanese culture, or penetration pacifique, has shown integration in all fields. Integration creates a stable and equilibrium condition. The question that then arises is how Demak produces laws that are able to create such stable conditions. It is important to do this on the fiber Suryangalam legal text of the Demak era. The purpose of this study is to identify the Serat Suryo Alam manuscript, explore Islamic law legislation in the text, and explain how the Islamic kingdom of Demak carried out social engineering to realize a just and peaceful society. Then to answer the problem, philological and historical methods are used, while the analysis uses content analysis with Talcott Parson's integration theory. This study concludes that: 1) the Suryo Alam manuscript is a legal text that can be found in the digitization of British Library manuscripts, 2) this manuscript contains legal, material, and judicial sources at the same time, and 3) social engineering can be measured by the stages of adaptation of Hindu and Islamic law, with the Trirasa Goal of efforts, legal integration, and efforts to maintain the law in people's social lives or latency. This stage gave birth to an equilibrium society of tata titi tentrem gemahripah loh jinawi kartaraharja.</p> 2021-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Khairil Umami, M Irfan Riyadi